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Medaka
Oryzias latipes

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Order:Beloniformes
Family:Adrianichthyidae
Genera
Adrianichthys
Horaichthys
Oryzias
Xenopoecilus (disputed)

The medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a popular model organism used in research in developmental biology. The medaka is a notable candidate for such a model animal. This small freshwater fish is found in East Asia with closely related congeneric species broadly distributed throughout Southeast Asia, and it has a long history of use as an experimental animal since the early 20th century. A number of inbred medaka strains have been established, and transgenesis and mutagenesis protocols have been developed, suggesting that medaka has great potential for use in systematic genetic analyses. Medaka genome sequences are also available. The greatest advantage of using medaka is its enormous genetic diversity compared to the other fish models (zebrafish, pufferfish, etc.), with the average nucleotide difference of 3.4% between two inbred medaka strains being the highest among any vertebrates thus far documented. In this study, our purpose is to assess the validity of medaka as a useful resource of comparative population genomics.